Luxury brands Aston Martin and Ferrari were the only two major car manufacturers to miss their EU emissions targets in 2015.
They will have to pay premiums as a result – all other car and van manufacturers met their goals.
The report from the European Environment Agency (EEA) also confirms preliminary findings earlier in the year that suggested the EU is generally below its average emissions target.
It provides a summary of the CO2 emission levels of new vehicles based on laboratory tests.
Ferrari went over its target of 295g of CO2/km, producing an average of 299.45g of CO2/km instead. Aston Martin’s emissions reached 312.2g of CO2/km, over their target of 310g of CO2/km.
Ferrari’s fine is expected to come in at about €400,000 (£337,000), while Aston Martin faces a fine of €35,000 (£29,500).
The report shows average new cars emitted 119.5g of CO2/km, 8% below the 2015 target of 130g of CO2/km and 27% lower than in 2014.
On average, vans also did well, emitting 168.3g of CO2/km, below the 2017 target of 175g CO2/km.
In order to meet 2020 targets, both van and car emissions need to maintain this pace of decarbonisation.