The new strategy builds on almost 40 years of co-operation and is the first bilateral science and innovation strategy China has developed jointly with another country.
It sets the framework for future co-operation to jointly tackle global challenges and drive economic growth over the next 10 years, covering research through to the commercialisation of new technologies.
It also outlines priority areas for renewable energy and environmental technologies.
The UK China Research and Innovation Partnership Fund supports projects on understanding climate risk and innovative agricultural technologies.
Science Minister Jo Johnson said: “The UK has a history of successful collaboration with China and we are increasingly looking to strengthen this partnership.
“This new joint strategy is a central part of the UK-China bilateral relationship, underpinning our mutual commitment to drive growth and tackle global challenges through science and innovation.”