Reducing long term greenhouse gas emissions in the industry sector is one of the toughest challeges of the energy transition.
That’s the view of the International Energy Agency (IEA), which states combustion and process emissions from cement manufacturing, iron and steelmaking and chemical production are “particularly problematic”.
However, it suggests increasing the uptake of renewables is one possible way to reduce energy and carbon in the industry sector.
The report highlights the recent rapid cost reductions in solar and wind power could provide ne options for greening the industry, either directly from electricity or through the production of hydrogen-rich chemicals and fuels.
Some regions it believes have abundant and cheap renewable resources include Australia, North Africa, northern Chile, Patagonia and several regions in China and the US.
The IEA suggests hydrogen-rich chemicals and fuels could be produced in these regions and shipping to large consumption centres, “creating new types of international energy trade”.
It adds green hydrogen and ammonia could also reduce emissions associated with iron and steelmaking.