BMW, Daimler and Toyota are the most environmentally-friendly car manufacturers.
That’s according to non-profit group Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP), which ranked responses from 16 manufacturers on their progress towards meeting regulatory emissions standards, using self-driving technology with renewable energy and incentivising lower carbon emissions.
Subaru got the worst rating out of all the manufacturers, which account for more than three quarters of the global passenger vehicle market.
CDP expects electric vehicles (EVs) will become as affordable as traditional combustion-engine cars by 2022 and believes a third of car sales will be made up of zero emission and plug-in hybrid vehicles by 2030.
The organisation expects the costs of complying with stricter emission standards to rise three-fold to more than £1,585 per vehicle in 2025.