They will continue to work together on scientific discoveries, including the development of power and propulsion systems for the Moon and Mars.
The new MoU highlights potential areas for collaboration such as high-performance computing, modelling and simulation, space nuclear power and propulsion, space weather, technology transfer and more.
Energy Secretary Dan Brouillette said: “From achieving a better understanding of the Moon, to providing the nuclear fuels to propel Voyager 1 and 2 into space, DOE and NASA have been strong collaborators in our nation’s space mission for decades.
“This new MoU will continue our esteemed work together as this Administration strives to reach the next generation of space innovations and exploration.”
It supports NASA’s Artemis programme, which aims to land the first woman and the next man on the Moon by 2024 and establish sustainable lunar exploration by the end of the decade to prepare for the first human mission to Mars.
NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine added: “Artemis depends on a coalition of partners across US Government, industry and the world.
“The DOE’s energy, science and technology expertise remains crucial to the success of NASA missions. Together, we will mature and ready systems for exploring more of the Moon and venturing humans farther into space, all for humanity’s benefit on Earth.”