The $20 billion (£14bn) Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is to be built by Russian state firm ROSATOM and will have a total capacity of 4.8GW.
President Vladimir Putin and Turkey’s Tayyip Erdogan were part of a ceremony via video and signed agreements to further strengthen their relations and advance their co-operation.
The nuclear plant is expected to provide 10% of the nation’s electricity demand and be commissioned in 2023.
Mr Putin said: “Owing to Akkuyu project, new up-to-date, well paid jobs will be created and new cutting-edge productions and technologies will be developed in Russia and Turkey.”
Construction of the first of four nuclear reactors in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) was rececntly completed.