The blast occurred earlier this week at South Fork Dairy near the town of Dimmitt and also left one person in critical condition.
Local authorities have suggested that machinery in the facility may have ignited methane gas, leading to the explosion.
The Castro County Sheriff’s Office received a report of the fire at around 19:21 on Monday.
The Castro County Sheriff’s Office said: “Upon arrival, it was determined that one person was trapped inside and fire crews were able to locate the person and remove them from the building. The person was flown to the UMC Hospital in Lubbock.”
While the exact number of cows that perished in the blaze remains unknown, the Sheriff’s Office confirmed that an estimated 18,000 cattle had been lost.
According to the Animal Welfare Institute (AWI), this is the deadliest barn fire involving cattle since at least 2013, when the organisation began tracking such incidents.
In response, the AWI is calling for farms to implement common-sense fire safety measures to better protect animals.